The average consumer has no real interest in products. Features, competitive advantage, price points, usability and delivery are all meaningless to them. When a customer is making a purchase decision they are hiring someone or something to do a job for them. This applies in virtually every industry and product vertigal. Customers hire products, they don’t buy them.
The Job-to-be-Done framework was pioneered by Harvard Business School professor Clayton Christensen. But still, most product leaders don’t realize the motivation behind customer purchase decisions.
Why People Hire Coffee
Coffee is an almost perfect way to explain the job to be done framework. Coffee is one of the oldest beverages, consumed by most people in the world today. Yet the way it’s consumed and the reasons why vary more than just how many sugars someone likes in their coffee.
Coffee can have many features, competitive advantages or delivery mechanisms. Coffee can be high quality or low quality. It can be sweet or bitter. It can be cheap or expensive. It can be instant or scientifically crafted. To make it more complicated, each feature is on a sliding spectrum. There can be near infinite types of coffee.
As a product leader, how can you decide what features to focus on when developing your product? You must first consider the job for which your customers are hiring coffee.
Three People. Three Cups of Coffee.
Some people choose not to make coffee at home. Their reason for consuming coffee is really to create a break in the day. To go to a coffee shop sit and read a book or otherwise checkout for a bit. They really don’t care that much about cost, convenience or time, because they are after the experience not the consumption.
A lot of people have a deep love of coffee. They may buy high-quality beans to grind for each type of brew. They likely own a few brewing mechanisms and can make coffee in nearly every possible way. For this person quality is important but the focus is on controlling the experience.
Many people don’t care about the coffee experience and treat coffee like a utility. Make it quickly, drink it fast, get the caffeine fix, rinse and repeat as needed for fuel each day. Instant coffee and fast-brew machines solve this need.
What You Can Do Right Now
There are a few practical steps you can take as a product leader. Realize that customer segments and demographic data is one-dimensional. Seeing your customers as a “tribe” isn’t necessarily actionable.
- Define your customers by job requirements
- Understand the motivation behind the job requirements
- Create hire-able and sellable solutions to these job requirements
- Demonstrate the solutions in a way that fits their requirements
It takes time, thought-process and energy in the beginning to do this right. If you aren’t solving challenges for your customers, what is the point?